The section provides link to articles and books on ICT, Human Development and Knowledge Management. Suggest a new link at email@example.com
on February 15, 2002
The top of the list contains all the NEW additions. Also E-journals List towards the end of the page.
Handing over telephony to the private sector will only retard the growth of telecommunications in India because the emphasis will be on profits. Backward areas, where telephones are most required, will be neglected.
International Institute for Sustainable Development
IISD discusses the lessons learned through years of managing sustainable development knowledge networks. Topics include governance, cross-cultural communications and the engagement of decision-makers.
There is a hope in many countries that IT will increase the degree of interest and involvement in politics and thus act as an aid to representative democracy. This hope is founded on the basic concept that the public should play an active part in everyday political life by interpreting what is good and what is bad.
There are a number of different organizations conducting e-readiness assessments in developing countries using a variety of tools. In its Comparison of E-readiness Assessment Tools, bridges.org evaluated major assessment models in terms of topics covered, level of detail, methodology and results. This paper builds on the comparison by looking at where e-readiness assessments have been carried out, and by whom.
The Electronic Commerce and Development Report 2001 reviews trends that developing countries need to be aware of as they try to position their economies to take advantage of ICT and the Internet. It provides basic facts and figures about electronic commerce and discusses the impact on sectors of particular relevance to developing countries. It also suggests, with concrete examples, ways in which developing countries can create the necessary enabling environment for e-commerce.
Access to Outcomes: Raising the Aspirations for Technology Initiatives in
In just the past several years, businesses, governments, and nonprofit organizations have dedicated billions of dollars and countless hours to the goal of closing the "digital divide" and ensuring that new information and communication technologies benefit families in low-income communities. These efforts have engaged leaders from all political viewpoints and all walks of life—from school principals to US presidents, from community activists to Fortune 500 CEOs. that allow people to earn a decent wage as well as dignity and respect.
This paper is part of an investigation about the impact of modern Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) on Latin America. Based on the theoretical groundwork given in the introductory paper ("From industrial economics to digital economics: an introduction to the transition" ), the present paper gives an inventory of the state of development with regard to the regional transition to the so-called Information Society, in order to untangle and structure present dynamics.
Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) have emerged recently as an area of increasing academic interest alongside the rise of the internet. Donor agencies have focussed mainly on Information Technology (IT) in the form of Tele-centres, which represent a high cost, "call shop" type solution that tends to be under-utilised and so financially unsustainable. This approach reveals an excessive focus on IT, and so brings with it the problems of outreach and literacy that are associated with that particular medium.
Jane Millar and Robin Mansell
The potential for developing countries to apply information and communication technologies (ICTs) in support of their development goals is attracting attention because of the growing expectation that ICT applications can support renewed efforts to reduce social and economic inequalities. Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are clusters of technological innovations based on micro-electronics hardware and software. The most topical recent applications involve the role of the Internet in opening access to vast stores of external information and in supporting e-mail communication.
This report provides a survey of what is known and what is being done about international and domestic digital divides, highlights trends, and draws some conclusions about what more is needed to tackle the range of problems.
Steve Rynecki and Casey Wolfe
Learning the lessons of a new economy hasn’t come easy to policy-makers in the development community, or their private sector counterparts. The hype surrounding the new economy must yield promptly to more effectively-designed technology solutions for ongoing development efforts.
and Reliability: The Problem of Information on the Internet
There are two issues regarding information on the Internet: a narrow issue regarding the reliability of information from a specific Web site, and a wider issue regarding reliance on the Web for information. This paper discusses some of the issues and their connection with recent discussions about community and fragmentation.
Nancy Hafkin and Nancy Taggart
Information and communication technology (IT) has become a potent force for transforming social, economic and political life globally. Yet, the uneven distribution of IT within societies and across the globe is resulting in a digital divide between those who have access to technology and those who do not. Most women in developing countries are in the deepest part of the divide.
VCIT was a five-year (1996-2001) ten million dollar CIDA-sponsored project. The project was designed to build the capacity of the Government of Vietnam (GoV) to plan and coordinate the management of the National Program on Information Technology (NPIT) implementation, which included an expected result of enhanced (IT) policy-making. NPIT’s goal was to "leapfrog" Vietnam’s use of IT from none to globally contemporary by the year 2020.
E-Commerce: Accelerator or Development?
E-commerce holds out enormous promises for producers in poor countries: easier access to the markets of rich countries and higher incomes resulting from these new trading opportunities. Many studies and policy documents, however, have underestimated the obstacles to reaping these benefits. It is not just a matter of bridging the 'digital divide' that arises from poor telecom infrastructure and lack of computer-related skills. Only with improvements in the transport of material goods and in the institutional arrangements that facilitate trust can e-commerce accelerate economic development.
The advent of modern communication technology has unleashed a new wave of opportunities and threats to the delivery of health services.Telemedicine, a broad umbrella term for delivery of medical care at a distance, has reached around the world, and now health professionals can communicate faster, more widely, and more directly with clients and colleagues, no matter where they are. Telemedicine may in fact have a more profound impact on developing countries than on developed ones.
The Use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) in Learning and Distance Education, South Africa, Ghana, Mozambique, Fiji, Trinidad & Tobago, Canada, COL International/Intelcon Research, 2000
Six country case studies were undertaken to examine ICT based learning and distance education across the Commonwealth. The countries were selected to be illustrative of the Commonwealth’s diversity, based on criteria such as geographic size, economy and region. It was realised early on that six countries would not be enough to capture or represent a full picture, but the selection does provide an indication of both the possibilities and the challenges faced by Commonwealth countries.
Does the Internet Increase, Decrease, or Supplement Social Capital? Social Networks, Participation, and Community Commitment
How does the Internet affect social capital? Do the communication possibilities of the Internet increase, decrease, or supplement interpersonal contact, participation, and community commitment? Our evidence comes from a 1998 survey of 39,211 visitors to the National Geographic Society website, one of the first large-scale web surveys. We find that people’s interaction online supplements their face-to-face and telephone communication, without increasing or decreasing it.
In this paper, Cynthia Hewitt de Alcántara highlights the diversity of applications and services usually subsumed under the acronym ICT, and she urges greater originality in devising programmes that put some of these tools to good use for development. She also draws attention to the frequent contradictions between hopes for ICT-led progress and the actual course of change in particular circumstances.
The Internet's new borders (The Economist print edition, April 9, 2001)
Long, long ago in the history of the Internet—way back in February 1996—John Perry Barlow, an Internet activist, published a “Declaration of the Independence of Cyberspace”. It was a well-meaning stunt that captured the spirit of the time, when great hopes were pinned on the emerging medium as a force that would encourage freedom and democracy. “Governments of the industrial world,” Mr Barlow declared, “on behalf of the future, I ask you of the past to leave us alone.
networks are transforming the traditional map of development, expanding
people's horizons and creating the potential to realize in a decade progress
that required generations in the past.
The aim was to select projects and initiatives that are representative of "local appropriation" (i.e. that are community-driven and therefore have a strong component of community participation and ownership). However, this criterion had to be revisited along the way since most of the projects tend to have some degree of support (technical and/or funding) from national and international development organisations.
Aminata Touré (WARO)
How can community organizations successfully exploit the new information and communication technologies (ICTs)? That is the issue confronting Rabia Abdelkrim Chikh, an anthropologist and researcher with Enda Ecopole in Senegal. As leader of a project that aims to demystify computers for young people in some of the most crowded neighbourhoods of Dakar and its outskirts, and make them a commonplace work tool, she has had some success.
The paper addresses the question of whether women have lower earnings because of intrinsic feminine attributes or because of features of their environment. In a model of household resource allocation and the labor market we show that equilibria satisfy static efficiency but are dynamically inefficient. A small difference in technology of production of the household good, or in preference for it, magnifies relative costs of external work for women. They devote more time to the production of the household good. But this choice lowers human capital embodied in women and changes the perceptions of women's abilities.
There is a great deal of hype and fervour about the digital divide. It is difficult to gain an overall understanding of the problem, the different approaches to solutions, and what is really making a difference when there are multiple definitions of the "digital divide," conflicting reports of whether it is growing or shrinking, and a range of opinions on the key factors affecting it. What is clear is that the disparities between the "haves" and the "have-nots" is growing, and the potential impact on society -- whether good or bad -- will be exacerbated by technology.
The Internet has continued to grow rapidly in Africa, reaching some important milestones over the last 12 months. In November last year, Eritrea obtained a local Internet connection, finally bringing all 54 countries and territories online. Last year the number of dialup Internet subscribers passed the million mark and the total international Internet bandwidth reached over 1 gigabyte per second.
Case studies and key issues
book opens with a global overview of the multipurpose community telecentre
movement and discusses the key issues of ownership, management, operational
models and sustainability. There follows a series of case studies of telecentres
drawn from Europe, North and South America, Africa, Asia and Australia.
The final chapters draw on the experiences, insights and findings of some
of the world’s leading experts in telecentres in regard to evaluation,
teleworking, training telecentre managers and staff, and selecting and
The handbook sets out good professional practice in the design, development and delivery of audio materials – radio, audio cassettes and audio-vision – for open and distance learning. The handbook is intended for all those who are involved in the design, development, production and use of audio materials in distance education and open learning, including policy makers, managers, tutors/facilitators and trainers.
recent political upheavals, the internet in Cote D’Ivoire continues to
grow steadily. Although the semi-privatised state telco operates a monopoly,
its regulatory regime has been sufficiently liberal to encourage new operators.
As a regional hub for the computer industry it should have considerable
Editing Distance Education Materials
Support Groups in Distance Education
Instructional Design for self-learning for distance education
The Use of Multi-Media in Distance Education
Managing for Electronic Networking
The series is brought out by The Commonwealth of Learning.
to the authors, the IDRC project survey shows that connecting people to
the Internet is only a first step, but much more is needed if this is to
help in changing societies. Their report lays out a social vision for the
Internet in Latin America, provides some lessons to achieve this vision,
and states what different projects need to do to meet coming challenges.
recent years, the Peruvian telecommunications sector has been deeply transformed,
following the free trade and market-oriented model for economic development
of the nation. The processes of privatisation and deregulation of this
sector, initiated at the beginning of the 1990s, replaced the public monopoly
attracting foreign firms. The expansion and modernisation of the telecommunications
networks that followed highly increased the general access to fixed telephony.
Investment Opportunities and Design Recommendations, with special reference to Central America
Internet is central to the network revolution that is transforming the
way people interact all over the world, and the Net has taken Latin America
and the Caribbean by storm. The number of domain names in the region doubled
in 1997 and 1998 and rose 136% in 1999, compared to 74% in North America,
60% in Asia, 30% in Europe, and 18% in Africa. The region, however, lags
far behind. Its Internet infrastructure represents only 1.6% of the world's
total. Only 2% of inhabitants of Latin America and the Caribbean use the
Internet, com-pared to 40% in the United States and 36% in Canada.
Leonard R. Sussman
trends in freedom of the Internet are mixed. Perhaps surprisingly, many
traditionally authoritative countries now permit relatively unrestricted
use of the Internet by citizens, while several of the most democratic states
attempt to impose restrictions on the Internet in the name of protecting
national security and public decency. And some countries seek international
agreement to block certain cross-border news flows on the Web.
document sets out to address the question of how gender can be meaningfully
integrated into telecentre evaluation methodologies. It is animated by
African experiences and examples and specifically by South African experiences
and examples. A lack of resources and time has limited the scope of this
document and it is recommended that more of both be put into further investigations
of these issues.
Global Networking for Change: Experiences from the APC Women's Networking Support Programme
September 1996, the Programme surveyed over 700 women's groups and individual
women by E-mail to identify women's electronic networking needs and opportunities.
Summarised findings are available in English,
In recent years the World Bank has rapidly increased its activities as a "Knowledge Bank". Recognising the importance of the internet, it has spent millions on its website and is now moving ahead rapidly with a vast new web initiative, the Development Gateway. This aims to be a supersite on all development issues, covering a range of material drawn from diverse organisations and attracting millions of site visitors per month.
Public Voice is a project of the Electronic Privacy Information Center
(EPIC) that seeks to promote the participation of NGOs in international
decision-making bodies that address Internet policy. This report is submitted
as a consultation to the Digital Opportunities Task Force (DOT Force),
a Digital Divide initiative of the Group of Eight (G-8).
Sitting in an office in Pretoria and locating the beating heart of a foetus in a Free State hospital through a TV screen, a remote control and tele-ultrasound brings home the magic of telemedicine - the latest project of the health services in their drive to bring health care closer to people. While still in its pilot phase, the nationwide telemedicine project is promising to have far-reaching effects in improving access to specialist services for rural communities and in improving the quality of health care.
a series of Articles on Science and Technology.
Francisco J. Proenza, Roberto Bastidas-Buch, Guillermo Montero
Red de Internet está en el centro de la revolución que está
transformando la forma en que se interrelaciona el mundo, y América
Latina y el Caribe le ha dado una vigorosa acogida. El número de
infraestructura (dominios) en la región se duplicó en 1997
y 1998, y aumentó en 136% en 1999, comparado con un crecimiento
de 74% en Norteamérica, 60% en Asia, 30% en Europa y 18% en Africa.
Mary E. Thyfault
pockets of the developing world, those deepest in poverty are starting
to discover that they can use technology to pull themselves up. In tiny
rural villages and overcrowded urban areas, people are using the Web to
find day jobs, sell everything from crafts to cows, communicate, learn
skills, and improve their lives.
millions have yet to make their first phone call, it will require huge
efforts to create the simplest communications networks in less-developed
areas of the world. Unless a start is made, poor countries will be further
For over five decades, radio has been the "most appealing tool" for participatory communication and development. It "has always been the ideal medium for change", says a new book on how radio, the Internet and other technologies are helping the poor get a better grip over their lives. Titled 'Making Waves' this 352-page report focuses on how radio stations across the globe are making a difference, often to those who lack other means of communication. It also looks at how other tools are being used for this purpose -- including computers, the Internet, multimedia, threatre and video.
Millions of internet users enjoy high speed internet access, but many more are still waiting for cost-effective quality broadband connections. The Broadband Report is a comprehensive update on the current state and future predictions for both the consumer and business broadband market in North America, Europe, Asia Pacific and Latin America.
nothing more than a computer and an Internet connection, a single person,
in their living room or in a cybercafé, can tell the whole world
what they think. All they need to do is set up a web site, take part in
a newsgroup or send e-mail messages. This person can even freely denounce
human rights violations or repression in their country, no matter how authoritarian
and closed it is.
was meant to completely rewrite the business model. Bricks and mortar suppliers
were meant to become a thing of the past. Now e-commerce is struggling
to reach the second generation, "hybrids" is the buzz word: sites that
put together more than one approach to e-commerce. South Africa’s Digital
Planet combines a combines a community-based site (for IT professionals)
with e-commerce and auctions.
Judy Young, Gail Ridley, Jeff Ridley
paper reports on a study of 18 of the 20 first round of community online
access centres introduced in Tasmania, the only island state of Australia.
The access centres were designed to redress some disadvantages of living
and working in rural regions of Tasmania, such as isolation and economic
inequity. The investigation aimed to determine and evaluate trends in micro
e-business activity associated with use of the centres. Statistical data
collected over a two year period in eighteen community online access centres
Katherine Reilly, Ricardo Gómez
has telecentre evaluation initiatives in Africa, Asia and Latin America.
Each of these is in the process of establishing evaluation frameworks and
each is adopting very different approaches. The current paper seeks to
build on the outputs of IDRC’s Far Hills Workshop on Telecentre Evaluation
(September 1999) to explore the experiences in the two regions. These explorations
will in turn contribute to IDRC’s current initiative to develop a framework
for ICTs evaluation.
Hani Shakeel, Michael Best, Bruno Miller, Sam Weber
deployed in both urban and rural areas, telecenters can decrease the gap
in social services and economic opportunities that often exist between
the two. However, establishing and operating rural telecenters is perceived
to be more costly than urban ones. This paper presents a cost comparison
of establishing urban and rural telecenter in Costa Rica.
Kate O'Dubhchair, James K. Scott, Thomas G. Johnson
the world, local communities are being asked to take greater responsibility
for their collective future. These communities must both interface with
the changing face of local and regional administration, redefining roles
and functions, (Scott and Henness, 1999) and meet the challenge of competing
in the global marketplace while yet retaining a sense of place and a community.
Communities must acknowledge that the nature of modern society is one of
challenge is to make the communication and information infrastructure serve
people’s primary needs and legitimate interests, especially those of marginalized
populations. People need to be able to exercise their responsibilities
and rights of citizenship, using information and communication to practice
active citizenship. They also need the capacity to acquire knowledge and
information to improve economic productivity (supported by a modern public
sector, which is conscience of its role as a development catalyst).
There are many reasons why new communications technology, particularly the role of the Internet, may potentially level the playing field allowing nations with moderate levels of development, like Malaysia, Estonia and Brazil, to catch up with post-industrial societies.
the effect of the Internet in broadening and enhancing access to information
and communication may be greatest in poorer nations, because once past
the barriers of access the new technology offers a relatively cheap and
Access by Radio and Internet Helps Close the Digital Divide
of the Internet and broadcasting is a critical priority in developing countries
and is already happening in many areas. Strategies to bring the power of
communications to rural communities marry the power and reach of radio
broadcasting with the power and interactivity of the Internet. Radio delivers
information to many listeners.
edited by Eva M. Rathgeber and Edith Ofwona Adera
essays in this book examine the current and potential impact of the ICT
explosion in Africa. They focus specifically on gender issues and analyze
the extent to which women's needs and preferences are being served. The
authors underscore the need for information to be made directly relevant
to the needs of rural women, whether in the areas of agriculture, health,
microenterprise, or education. They argue that it is not enough for women
simply to be passive participants in the development of ICTs in Africa.
the Internet in Developing Nations
the developing world, small groups of citizens are changing their worlds
based on the shared belief that information and communication technology
(ICT) can make a difference. And while in the developed world the pumped-up
information economy has officially transformed how its citizens work, live,
learn, and entertain themselves, emerging economies are wrestling with
more basic issues, such as connectivity, content management, training,
and public policy.
Dr Noor Ahmed Memon
Pakistan Telecommunication Development was established in August 1947,
which was responsible to run the services under the Telegraph Act 1885.
In 1968 the services were separated from the Post Office and new entity
called Telegraphs and Telephone Department (T&T) was established under
the Ministry of Communications. On 15th of December, 1990, Pakistan Telecommunication
Corporation (PTC) was established to take the function of (PT &T).
to the Internet: The Costs of Connecting
More than seven years have passed since the Internet Society began its series of Network Training Workshops at Stanford University in August 1993. In that time, the main workshops and those derived from them in Eastern Europe, Latin America, and Africa have trained more than 2,500 students intensively in network connectivity, network backbone routing, resource discovery and information serving, national network management, and Internet-provider business skills.
Access by Radio and Internet Helps Close the Digital Divide
Convergence of the Internet and broadcasting is a critical priority in developing countries and is already happening in many areas. Strategies to bring the power of communications to rural communities marry the power and reach of radio broadcasting with the power and interactivity of the Internet.
Internet in Laos: A Rough Guide
is the new way forward for health care. It was introduced in the 1970's
for the exchange of medical data in the USA. Today, medical professionals
are using computers and telecommunications equipment to provide health
care over long distances. It is actually an advanced version of a telephone
conversation between doctor and patient, although it is more reliable since
it uses Virtual Communication, and we can see the person on the other end.
they for real and do they stand to benefit from artificial intelligence?
Can India's villages ride on the infotech highway to development? To a
certain extent this is already happening but it is a knotty situation.
Can IT evolve to serve rural India’s needs? The dairy cooperatives of Anand
in Gujarat are using IT applications to streamline procedures, making a
significant difference to the lives of milk producers in surrounding villages.
policy makers are aggressively promoting high tech's global interests by
breaking down barriers to electronic commerce. While e-commerce has been
central to the free traders' agenda, the critics of corporate globalization
have largely ignored the issue. It's time for anti-globalization forces
to start paying attention, according to Sarah Anderson, Director of the
Global Economy Project at the Institute for Policy Studies in Washington.
year’s report, The State of the Internet 2000, provides an overview
of the continuing expansion of the Internet and gives special attention
to the increasingly international nature of the Internet.The
Internet has far surpassed its humble beginnings as the Department of Defense’s
ARPANET.It has become truly global
in scope, growing more so with each passing day.The
Internet draws people of all countries, cultures, and languages.This
year over 300 million people are online, with fewer than half from North
a model of household resource allocation and the labor market we show that
equilibria satisfy static efficiency but are dynamically inefficient. A
small difference in technology of production of the household good, or
in preference for it, magnifies relative costs of external work for women.
They devote more time to the production of the household good. But this
choice lowers human capital embodied in women and changes the perceptions
of women's abilities. Women are relegated to low productivity work in a
self-reinforcing low-level trap that lowers their self-esteem.
is the question that brought leading executives from digital companies
to a meeting October 16-18, 2000 in Seattle. The powerful answer that emerged
from the conference, shared by nearly all participants, was that the digital
divide is both an urgent problem and a potentially significant opportunity.
As Internet founding father and WorldCom Senior Vice President Dr. Vinton
Cerf put it, "The Internet is for everyone."
Digital Divide to Digital Opportunity
t may not always feel so, but we are the lucky ones in the digital revolution. As a prelude to considering the digital divide, I want to explore some characteristics of the world we inhabit. We believe that it is changing fast. Those of us in our fifties can certainly look back on our childhood - and realize that it took place in an impossibly different, post-war world. Those black and white clips from British Movietone News we sometimes see on television serve to confirm that.
developments in information and communications technologies (ICT) - including
the rapid spread of telecommunications infrastructure and the growth of
the Internet - have dramatically lowered the barriers to research collaboration
in the developing world. Electronic networking offers the potential for
researchers anywhere to communicate with peers in their field and to gain
access to valuable research information via the Internet.
Paul Fervoy, Juliana Martínez, and María Sáenz
the past twenty-five years Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) have played
a key role in fostering democratization and social equity, often filling
the gap between national public policies and people’s needs. As such, the
strengthening of CSOs has been vaunted as part of the solution for the
region’s socio-economic problems and search for alternative development
the digital divide : a special report by BBC UK
new economy is seen principally as an American phenomenon. An effect of
sustained growth with low inflation is caused by … what? Until recently,
the answer would have been 'Amazon' and the like: new firms making use
of new technology to develop new customer markets. That's a lesson that
seems to have been taken to heart in 'ICTs and Development' initiatives
and debate. The current thrust in ICTs and development has been to help
communities and small enterprises utilise the new technology.
purpose of this paper is to contribute to a debate that must necessarily
be collective and based on existing experience: to outline a strategy for
influencing public policies aimed at developing the use of new information
and communication technologies, and in particular the Internet, in Latin
Connectivity: New Information and Communication Technologies for Social
New Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are tools that have the potential to contribute to the realization of democracy, prosperity and human potential in the Americas. To this aim, governments in the region need to promote a socially responsible use of ICTs for development.
socially responsible understanding of connectivity goes beyond providing
equitable access to ICTs, and includes meaningful use and appropriation
of ICT tools for social development.
Published in Current History, Vol. 99 No. 634, p.72., 2000.Half a century ago, Argentine writer Jorge Luis Borges published two short stories, “The Library of Babel” and “The Aleph.” The first describes an infinite library containing every book imaginable. The second speaks of a place in which one can see all things that exist in all places, from all possible angles and perspectives, in that single place and time.
Richard Heeks and Richard Duncombe
This handbook is for staff in agencies that support the development of small enterprise in developing countries. It aims to provide those staff with a better understanding of information and of information and communication technologies in enterprise development. The handbook will also be of value to staff in donor agencies, government departments and professional business associations, and to researchers and students dealing with ICTs, with enterprise, and with development.
Richard Heeks and Richard Duncombe
This handbook is for entrepreneurs running a small business in a developing country. It aims to help those entrepreneurs understand new information and communication technologies, and their application in business. The handbook covers four areas: an introduction to ICTs in small business; guidance for particular types of small business; advice sheets on communicating with customers; and advice sheets on using the new technology.
Consulting was commissioned to review the secondary evidence on the impact
of the new economy on poor people and developing countries and to consider
the policy implications for institutions involved in supporting pro poor
growth.The focus of the review was
on the impact of new economy ICT developments and in particular the internet
These guidelines in this handbook are designed to support research and evaluation studies of community telecentres, particularly in Africa, where the Acacia Initiative of the International Development Research Centre (IDRC) and its partners will be undertaking such studies. The guidelines identify the key questions facing the research and evaluation team, propose alternative solutions and best practices based on experience from similar field situations, and facilitate comparability of pilot projects by providing a common reference and starting point.
At the Kyushu-Okinawa Summit 2000, the Okinawa Charter on Global Information Society (IT Charter) was adopted, in which the G8 agreed to establish a Digital Opportunity Taskforce (dot force) and to look into activities aimed at eliminating the digital divide, which would be reported to G8 Leaders at the G8 Summit to be held in Genoa, Italy.
Corruption is a major problem for many parts of the public sector. One dominant vision of corruption restraint – the ‘Panoptic vision’ – sees information technology (IT) as a key enabler of management control. This paper presents five short case studies of IT and public sector corruption to test the realities of this Panoptic vision. From these it is concluded that, while IT sometimes does detect and remove corruption, it can also have no effect or even provide new corruption opportunities for some public servants.
Michael Kahn and Russell Swanborough
paper considers problems with existing government processes in South Africa,
and presents a generally-applicable framework for analysis of existing
government information systems prior to transformation. It argues that
a central theme of government transformation is development of a culture
of information management to ensure that information systems fit the task
for which they are procured.
As in many countries, public sector reform in India has consisted of five main components: increased efficiency, decentralisation, increased accountability, improved resource management, and marketisation. 'Information age reform' means delivering these ongoing reform components with a more overt role for information and with greater use of information technology. A review of global experience suggests that information age reform has great potential to improve public administration and other components of the public sector.
Many governments have created, or are seeking to create, a Web presence. A set of information delivery principles and Web site design criteria are therefore presented. These criteria are then used to evaluate the Web sites of forty-eight US State governments, providing insights into both best and worst practice for government. The paper concludes with some details of the strategic approaches to Web site development that governments may need to adopt.
Contains several papers of a workshop conducted from March 30 - April 3, 1998 in Tune Landboskole, Denmark.
Articles taken from the website of Digital Dividend- a conference conducted by WRI on Digital Divide in October 2000.
Iqbal Z. Quadir
by the author's personal communication experience and the potential good
communication connections have in enabling development the paper describes
an initiative in Bangladesh that within a few years will bring cellular
phones into the 35,000 villages covered by the Grameen Bank. The company
- GrameenPhone - in a pilot program involving 150 villages has confirmed
that the village phone concept is economically viable.
Kirsten Ewers Andersen
Women in countries like India and Nepal possess deep-rooted knowledge about their immediate environment due to their economic dependence of their surroundings. On the basis of a discussion of women’s knowledge and technology, indigenous knowledge and gender, problems in scientific technology transfer and the value of indigenous knowledge and intellectual property rights, the main argument of the paper is that although there are often contradictions in the goals of international development work, it is in fact possible to combine them in the agricultural, livestock and natural resource management sector, when women’s knowledge is used in the right manner.
purpose of this paper is to analyze how the rapid proliferation and development
of telecommunications and information technology are effecting women in
developing countries, particularly in rural and remote areas. The study
will examine trends in rural telecommunication in general, focusing primarily
on rural telephone system installations; identify the positive benefits
for women; take a look at the obstacles preventing women from taking full
advantage of telecommunication tools and opportunities.
Life at Work in the Information Economy (ILO 2001 Report)
The World Employment Report 2001 examines the impact of the new information and communication technologies on life at work at a time when the global employment situation still remains of considerable concern. While there have been some significant positive developments, especially in the United States and some industrialized countries, in most parts of the world the growth of new employment opportunities still remains insufficient to productively employ those who have lost jobs due to restructuring and the new entrants into the labour force.
This paper explores the development of information and communications technologies in the country from the introduction of the telegraph in the mid-nineteenth century through the explosive growth of telephone access during the 1990s. The paper includes a review of academic, NGO, government and donor-sponsored studies on IT and development, and it highlights some of the most significant gaps in understanding how IT is being used by different social groups.
Online Communities: Commerce, Community Action, and the Virtual University edited by Chris Werry and Miranda Mowbray
Online communities are increasingly important in commerce, in education, and in the nonprofit sector. In this book, experts from these three areas write about the theory and practice of online communities. Issues discussed include the effects of commercial communities on the social interaction of community members; intellectual property implications of the commercial provision of educational online communities; alternative models for online community organization; and lessons drawn from contributors' experiences in the use of online communities for development work, in online activism, and in the Open Source movement.
Few would deny that healthcare-oriented mobile devices provide impressive capabilities. Mobile monitoring devices let nurses track patients' vital signs from a distance. PDAs provide doctors with patient records and reference materials, and they can transmit legible prescriptions to pharmacies. But with medical providers already facing spiraling costs, the new, largely experimental technology is proving to be a hard sell.
The dynamics of power and knowledge in the global information economy pose a dual and contradictory challenge for education and social development. There is a Hausa proverb which tells us "lack of knowledge is darker than night" but, in the politics of the information economy, it is the nature of knowledge itself that is contested.
Stephen G. Greene
the start of the 21st century, the nonprofit world is far from ready to
take full advantage of the flowering of the Information Age. A few groups
have found that by exploiting the Internet and other information technologies
they can slash expenses, extend the reach of their programs, and transform
the way they work. But many others have been frustrated as they wrestle
with increasingly complex hardware and software, hampered by a lack of
technical expertise, unable to raise funds to get the equipment and training
they need, or perhaps merely skeptical about the need to change.
Larry Press, Tim Kelly, Michael Minges
The authors conducted a study of the state of the Internet and telecommunication in Nepal during January, 2000 (ITU, 2000).Part of our charge was to recommend electronic commerce projects that would generate hard currency and increase social and geographic equity and rural employment.
The text was prepared by Information Habitat: Where Information Lives for the Global Business Hearings for the High-Level Intergovernmental Event on Financing for Development, United Nations, New York, 11-12 December 2000.
write about the use of information and communication technology and democracy
requires not a hyper-speed view that everything will change in the next
two years. Rather it is the principles we establish and the actions we
take now that will set the course for the next two hundred years of democracy
in the information age. We must ask ourselves - Do we want to build the
Internet into the very nature our many democracies?
The Electronic Networking Project for Sustainable Development of the Hindu Kush -Himalayas (ENP), April 1997 to June 2000, was formulated and implemented by ICIMOD and funded by the International Development and Research Centre (IDRC). Its objective was to build capacities and develop a network of "like-minded" researchers, development administrators, practitioners, planners, and policy-makers from government agencies, university departments, research institutions, and NGOs.
paper explores the avenues created by ICT enabled networking processes
for women in the areas of empowerment and governance, the hindrances facedin
engendering of these processes andgoes
on to suggest ways to ensure that greater benefits accrue to women in a
Richard Heeks, David Mundy and Angel Salazar
Some health care information systems (HCIS) do succeed, but the majority are likely to fail in some way. To explain why this happens, and how failure rates may be reduced, this paper describes the ‘ITPOSMO’ model of conception—reality gaps. This argues that the greater the change gap between current realities and the design conceptions (i.e. requirements and assumptions) of a new health care information system, the greater the risk of failure.
Asian Disaster Management News
The Disaster Management News (Vol. 6, No. 3-4 July-December 2000) published by the Asian Disaster Preparedness Center (ADPC), Bangkok, Thailand is now available on-line on ADPC web site. This issue focuses on Networking in Disaster Management.
Despite the irritatingly slow progress of economic and social development in the world's least developed countries (LDCs), a gentle but nevertheless dramatic change has begun to dawn in their institutional decision-making: the increasing use of IT-based decision support systems. This paper, based on a study in one of the poorest African countries, demonstrates that decision support systems (DSS), which are increasingly though still insufficiently used, have already generated some benefits for the utilising organisations.
We live in an information age that is transforming the prospects of communities and nonprofit organizations. Inboxes, both real and virtual, are often overflowing with information from think tanks, foundations, national organizations, university research centers, and others about what works to strengthen communities.
While the initial phase of IT India had little government and entrepreneur support at the business level, the new phase has large government strategic support ti chaneg the macro environment and entice more entrepreneurs and SMEs into the fray.
and Communication Technologies (ICT) are not only a significant factor
in the performance and growth of economies - the importance of which is
continuously growing -,but they also represent a novel and effective tool
to help advance sustainable human development (SHD).
Osei K. Darkwa and Steve Eskow
paper proposes the establishment of an African Virtual Community College
(AVCC) which uses the power of information communications technologies
to overcome the financial, physical and informational barriers preventing
increased access to higher education in several African countries. AVCC
will utilize new technologies as the central media of its educational and
training programs. This paper outlines the assumptions underpinning the
AVCC model, its components and its advantages over existing educational
past two decades have demonstrated the growing strength of the global women’s
movement in advocating issues of women’s equality and empowerment. Among
these issues is that of women’s marginalization and invisibility in all
aspects of technology. There exists an array of literature that speaks
to this topic.
Prof. Edna Aphek
is a multicultural country, a country made up of different ethnic groups
: many having their own culture, language and even religion. There isn't
much contact between some of the groups, especially between the secular
Jews and the ultra orthodox Jews and between the Jewish population and
the Arab population which comprises about 1/6th of Israel's population.
The new technologies and especially the technology of on- line computer
telecommunication endow us with new tools and possibilities for on- going
multi- cultural and multi- age communication between different ethnical
groups. The new technologies know no stigma and no prejudice and as such
easify and make possible neutral, less biased communication between groups,
which are much apart.
community technology center movement has come of age. Particularly over
the next few years as funding to start and expand thousands of new centers
becomes available, the opportunity to impact millions of lives presents
itself. To realize this potential, however, efforts must be made to enhance
the efficiency of community technology centers (CTCs).
and knowledge play a key role in ensuring food security and sustainable
development. In order to address policy issues related to management and
access to agricultural information, FAO and its World Agricultural Information
Centre (WAICENT) organised in June 2000 the First Consultation on Agricultural
Information Management. The Consultation aimed to discuss ways of improving
the capacities of decision-makers, professionals and the public to access
and use information essential for achieving sustainable agricultural development
and food security. This link provides a further link to some interesting
articles on ICT and Food Security.
new paper by researchers at Resources for the Future (RFF) says that state
- level governments are in an early and experimental phase in applying
the principles of electronic democracy to environmental decisionmaking.
The paper describes an RFF survey examining how all 50 states in US use
the Internet to engage citizens in environmental issues.
The essays in this book examine the current and potential impact of the ICT explosion in Africa. They focus specifically on gender issues and analyze the extent to which women's needs and preferences are being served. The authors underscore the need for information to be made directly relevant to the needs of rural women, whether in the areas of agriculture, health, microenterprise, or education. They argue that it is not enough for women simply to be passive participants in the development of ICTs in Africa.
This book describes a new initiative to promote the involvement of youth in Africa's new information economy. It reviews existing infrastructure, the policy environment and its impact, and the feasibility of increased ICT applications in rural communities. It will appeal to decision-makers and ICT producers and users, as well as to development professionals, academics, students, policymakers, and practitioners in international development and information technology.
of IT-Based Decision-Making in Developing Countries (PDF format)
Technological Innovation for Development (PDF format)
Women for Leadership and Success in IT
Development and Food Security : a "Community Informatics" based Conceptual
of the Heart: Dream Makers Bridging the Digital Divide
and Communication Technologies (ICTs) for Rural Development and Food Security:
Lessons from Field Experiences in Developing Countries
meets West: the teletao of knowware (Word Format)
ICTs in Rural Support Programmes
Technology, Globalization and Social Development
with the Digital Divide
Content in South Asia
Our Communities: The Impacts of Information-Technology
and the Information Age: Four Global Scenarios for the Future of Information
and Communication Technology
Group's Global New E-Economy Audio Briefing
language computing has no alternative
ICT enabled Knowledge Societies
Community Telecentres : Guidelines for Researchers
the Global Knowledge Society
Education in India-A view point
Networking Revolution: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing Countries
paper introduces our approach to, and practice of evaluation, and shares
some experiences and lessons learned applying the Information and Communication
Technology (ICT) Audit Framework, an evaluation tool to learn more about
the role and impact of ICTs on development projects. Conclusions drawn
from this experience point to the need for evaluation frameworks that consider
broader issues such as gender, race, ethnicity and class.
Poor Countries Losing the Information Revolution? (MS Word Format)
and Small Enterprise in Africa : Lessons from Botswana
Networking in Cross Cultural Settings (PDF Format)
Societies : Information Technology for Sustainable Development
Societies in a Nutshell: Information Technology for Sustainable Development
Globally, Reinvent Locally: Knowledge Infrastructure and Localization of
for the networked world: a guide for developing countries
City of the Future in the Emerging Information Society
in Communications Policies
Innovations and Sustainable Development
Societal Challenges of the information Society: How can ICT assist in building
an inclusive, sustainable and democratic society capitalising on cultural
Building of a Virtual Institute of Cross Cultural Innovation: The Human
and Content - Some Thought on I.T. and Globalisation
Information for Development
Enabling India through Telecom and Internet Connections
National Access Point: The Dilemma of Vision (ICT in Pakistan)
Information Technology Help Transform India?
articles by Dewang Mehta and Kanwal Rekhi.
Resource development to meet the challenges of Information and Communication
Technologies (ICTs) (Word File)
Swords to Ploughshares
ICTs and Small Enterprise: Lessons from Botswana
Strategies in Developing Countries
of Knowledge Management
for 21st Century Innovation
Networking for Rural Asia-Pacific (ENRAP)
Networking for Sustainable Development
Policy for a Knowledge Economy
Information for Development
in Technology for Development
on Telecentres: How can they contribute to social development?
the Gap between Knowledge and Policy
Internet Comes to Rural India
Network of Grassroots Green Innovators
for decision-making is the subject of Chapter
40 of Agenda 21, which emphasizes that, in sustainable development,
everyone is a user and provider of information considered in the broad
sense. That includes data, information, experience and knowledge. The need
for information arises at all levels, from that of senior decision-makers
at the national and international levels to the grass-roots and individual
levels. Two programme areas, in particular, need to be implemented to ensure
that decisions are based increasingly on sound information.
Journal for Information Systems In Developing Countries
The Newswire of Politics on the Internet - a publication of PoliticsOnline.
InteRadio is primarily a feature magazine. It examines key issues affecting the community radio movement around the world linking it to the democratization of communications at large. The international community radio struggle for recognition and legitimacy as an essential broadcast sector are explored through concepts like the Right to Communicate. Themes are examined globally and through stories or perspectives from particular regions.
Information Society (TIS) Journal
Knowledge Management Central
KM is a case study-based journal featuring articles from global companies, reinforced with contributions from leading academics. Articles cover all aspects of intellectual capital management. The magazine comes in both printed and electronic format, and subscribers have access to an online database of articles published in previous issues, as well as receiving special reductions on related seminars and workshops.